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Glossary

Acceptance: agreement to the terms of an offer.

Accountable Executive: the person who interacts with the board and executive leadership on plans, policies, purchasing decisions and daily operations that impact safety under the Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA) Safety Management System model.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990: a civil rights law that protects the rights of individuals with disabilities to equal opportunity and access to employment, public services, and public accommodations and services operated by private entities. 

Capital assets: in the context of transit asset management, refers to vehicles, other equipment, and facilities.

Chief Safety Officer: typically oversees key safety functions and must report directly to the Accountable Executive for all safety concerns under the FTA’s Safety Management System model.

Competitive procurement: formal procurement methods required for purchases that exceed the simplified acquisition threshold in the Federal Acquisition Regulations (48 CFR Subpart 2.1). Examples include sealed bids and competitive proposals.

Competitive Proposals: A competitive procurement process in which proposals are publicly solicited (through a request for proposals), and a contract is awarded, generally, to the responsible offerer whose proposal is the most advantageous when price and other factors are considered.

DBE goal: refers to goal for Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) participation in contracting opportunities.

Demand responsive system: any system of transporting individuals which is not a fixed route system (U.S. Department of Transportation Americans with Disabilities Act regulatory definition). Also commonly referred to as demand response system.

Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE): a for-profit small business owned and controlled by a socially and economically disadvantaged individual, certified by a state’s Unified Certification Program.

Environmental Justice: established by Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, intended to  avoid, minimize, or mitigate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects, including social and economic effects, on minority populations and low-income populations; ensure the full and fair participation by all potentially affected communities in the transportation decision-making process; and prevent the denial of, reduction in, or significant delay in the receipt of benefits by minority and low-income populations.

Equal Employment Opportunity: refers to statutes and regulations that prohibit employment discrimination and provide employees and job applicants with protections and remedies against employment discrimination.

Fixed route system: operates along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule.

FTA Circulars: guidance to provide grantees with direction on program specific issues and statutory requirements.

Independent Cost Estimate (ICE): the first price/cost analysis required in every procurement process, developed to establish a reasonable price range for the goods or services being procured.

Indirect costs: costs that are shared among all departments or programs in an organization. Also referred to as overhead.

Joint procurement: refers to more than one agency collaboratively going through a competitive procurement that addresses the needs of all of the agencies involved. 

Local match: funds that are required to cover to part of the cost of grant-funded costs. For FTA grants, referred to as non-federal share and can include state funding.

Micro-purchase: a procurement method allowed for purchases that do not exceed the micro-purchase threshold in the Federal Acquisition Regulations (48 CFR Subpart 2.1).

Mobility management: an approach to designing and delivering transportation services that starts and ends with the customer. Common components include partnerships between multiple agencies and organizations; a customer-driven, market-based approach that provides customers with a variety of transportation options through individualized trip planning; and one-stop travel information and trip planning centers that provide information on available transportation options and coordinate requests for transportation services.

National Transit Database (NTD): FTA database that records the financial, operating and asset condition of transit systems.

Net project cost: For FTA operating grants, net project costs are calculated by subtracting fares from the total project cost.

Non-federal share: non-federal funds that are required to cover to part of the cost of federal grant-funded costs. Commonly referred to as local match.

Offer: a promise, in response to a solicitation, to provide goods or services according to specified terms and conditions in exchange for material compensation.

On-time performance: rate of vehicle runs completed as scheduled.

Period of performance: time span during which a grant project’s costs are funded by federal grant funds.

Piggybacking: an assignment of existing contracts rights to purchase supplies, equipment, or services to another agency.

Procurement: making a purchase or awarding a contract.

Route deviation service: vehicles generally operate along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule but have the ability to deviate off-route upon request.

Safety-sensitive: Under FTA Drug and Alcohol regulations, safety-sensitive functions include operating a revenue service vehicle, including when not in revenue service; operating a nonrevenue service vehicle that requires CDL; controlling dispatch or movement of a revenue service vehicle; maintaining (including repairs, overhaul and rebuilding) a revenue service vehicle or equipment used in revenue service; carrying a firearm for security purposes.

Sealed bids: A competitive procurement process in which bids are publicly solicited through an invitation for bids, and a firm fixed price contract (lump sum or unit price) is awarded to the responsible bidder whose bid, conforming to all the material terms and conditions of the invitation for bids, is lowest in price.

Section 5307: FTA’s Urbanized Area Formula Program under the FAST Act.

Section 5310: FTA’s Enhanced Mobility of Seniors and Individuals with Disabilities Program under the FAST Act.

Section 5311: FTA’s Formula Grants for Rural Areas funding program under the FAST Act.

Section 5339: FTA’s Bus and Bus Facilities Program under the FAST Act.

Service animal: any guide dog, signal dog, or other animal individually trained to work or perform tasks for an individual with a disability, including, but not limited to, guiding individuals with impaired vision, alerting individuals with impaired hearing to intruders or sounds, providing animal protection or rescue work, pulling a wheelchair, or fetching dropped items (U.S. Department of Transportation definition; U.S. Department of Justice has a different definition).

Service availability: a general measure of the distribution of routes within a transit provider’s service area, such as the percentage of all residents in the service area are within walking distance to a route, or the maximum distance between stops.

Small Purchase: a procurement method allowed for purchases that do not exceed the simplified acquisition threshold in the Federal Acquisition Regulations (48 CFR Subpart 2.1).

Sole source: a noncompetitive procurement method used when supplies or services are available from only one source.

Solicitation: a purchasing entity's request for offers, including a telephone request for price quotations, an invitation for bids, or a request for proposals.

Spare ratio: the total number of spare vehicles available for fixed-route service divided by the total number of fixed-route vehicles required for peak service, typically expressed as a percentage.

State of good repair: the condition in which a capital asset is able to operate at a full level of performance.

Strategic planning: a deliberative, disciplined effort to produce decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it.  It is commonly used by private and public entities to actively guide future activities and direction, rather than simply having to react to what may occur.

Subrecipient: recipient of FTA funding that is award by FTA to the state or other direct recipient, who then awards the funds to other entities.  For the Section 5311 program, eligible subrecipients include local governments, tribes, transit authorities, and private nonprofit organizations that provide rural public transportation.

Super Circular: 2 CFR Part 200, Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) regulations that apply to federal grants and agreements.

Title VI: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 states that “no person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”

Transit amenities: include items of comfort, convenience, and safety that are available to the general riding public, such as benches, shelters, signage, and trash receptacles.

Value statement: describes core beliefs and principles that guide an organization.

Vehicle assignment: refers to how vehicles are assigned to routes.

Vehicle headway: a measure of the frequency of fixed route service, typically expressed as the amount of time between two vehicles traveling in the same direction on a given route.

Vehicle load: a measure of the level of crowding on a vehicle, typically expressed as the ratio of passengers to the total number of seats on a vehicle.                                                                                                                                 

Wheelchair: a mobility aid belonging to any class of three- or more-wheeled devices, usable indoors or outdoors, designed or modified for and used by individuals with mobility impairments, whether operated manually or powered.

Updated May 1, 2019